Health Testing

I use a range of laboratory tests to help identify how the body systems are functioning. Tests include: hair mineral analysis, blood sampling, urine and stool analysis to ascertain a current picture of health, any existing vitamin and mineral deficiencies, parasitic infections, or heavy metal levels within the body. I offer a full range of testing, please see the complete list below.

Living in the 21st century can be a very stressful existence. We’re exposed to more and more environmental stress and pollution, we have stress related to work and exams and even some of the food that we eat can be stress inducing. When we are exposed to stress our adrenal glands produce cortisol to help the body cope. If we are too stressed our adrenal glands start to fatigue and cant produce enough cortisol and we end up entering the vicious circle of stress related illnesses.
The way we produce cortisol is different for every individual that’s why most adrenal testing procedures monitor cortisol levels at different points of the day. The test gives an indication of how our body is coping with stress.

The test price is £85 and consists of 4 x saliva samples throughout the day

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1-Day Progesterone/Oestradiol

This test includes the measurement of oestradiol and progesterone from a single saliva sample. It is recommended for post-menopausal women, those taking hormone supplementation, or as an economical means of assessing luteal-phase hormone levels in pre-menopausal women.

AA/EPA Ratio Profile - Plasma

This unique test measures the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in plasma. This ratio of the principle omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids is a measure of the body's eicosanoid balance. Balancing the eicosanoids in the body is an excellent way for managing heart disease and other chronic and inflammatory processes.

Recently, a great deal of interest has been paid to the ratio of the fatty acids arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). According to Dr. Barry Sears, author of Toxic Fat: When Good Fat Turns Bad, a lower AA/EPA ratio indicates a better balance of "good" and "bad" eicosanoids in your body. An AA/EPA ratio of less than 3 but not less than 1.5 is considered to be ideal. It is no longer considered "well" to have a ratio greater than 10. Anything exceeding 15 means a high level of inflammation in the blood (Toxic Fat Syndrome) and requires immediate dietary attention.

AA/EPA Ratio features:

  • True quantitative analysis of fatty acids
  • Included with the 0041 Fatty Acids - Plasma profile and 0241 Bloodspot Fatty Acid profile

Test name(s)

0240 - AA/EPA Ratio

Method

GC/MS

ADMA Profile (Asymmetric Dimethylarginine)

As the principal endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase,ADMA (asymmetric dimethylarginine), regulates rates of nitric oxide (NO) formation. Nitric oxide acts as a signal molecule in the nervous system, as a weapon against infections, as a regulator of blood pressure, and as a gate keeper of blood flow to the organs. Elevated ADMA has been associated with various cardiovascular risk factors, renal failure, and erectile dysfunction. Factors contributing to elevated ADMA include increased oxidative challenge and folic acid insufficiency.

Why measure ADMA?

Because independent studies have shown that:

  • ADMA is a better predictor of insulin resistance than any other single marker!
  • It is a better predictor of vascular endothelial impairment than cholesterol!
  • Homocysteine increases in proportion to ADMA. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis may explain why homocysteine has been associated with impaired endothelium mediated, nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation.
  • An elevated concentration of ADMA is a potential contributory factor for pre-eclampsia, and is associated with endothelial dysfunction in some women.
  • A glucose-induced impairment causes ADMA accumulation and may contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.
  • In the cardiovascular system, decreased NO biosynthesis has the potential to increase blood pressure, enhance platelet and white cell adhesiveness, increase vascular smooth muscle growth, alter mitochondrial oxygen consumption and accelerate the development of atherosclerotic-like lesions.
  • In pre-clinical and clinical studies, ADMA has been found to be elevated by hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or hyperhomocysteinemia.
  • ADMA levels are highly correlated with triglyceride levels.
  • ADMA is elevated in peripheral and carotid artery blockage in proportion to the blockage.

Lower ADMA and restore nitric oxide production

  • Antioxidants speed breakdown of ADMA
  • Arginine (3-6 grams daily) increases NO production
  • "The common mechanism by which folic acid, H4B, vitamin C, w-3 fatty acids, and L-arginine bring about their beneficial actions in various vascular diseases is by enhancing endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) production." (Nutrition 2003;19: 686-692.)

The Metametrix ADMA Assay is:

  • A unique, independent marker of NO competence
  • A cost-effective addition to any cardiovascular risk assessment
  • Included with the Metametrix Metabolic Syndrome Profile

Test name(s)

0014 - ADMA Profile

Method

LC/MS-MS

Adrenal - Thyroid Profile

Adrenal evaluation is commonly considered for patients with fatigue and a host of other complaints resulting from a history of chronic psychological or physiological stress. However adrenal evaluation is also vital for treating patients with hypothyroidism, due to the close interaction of these endocrinal systems. Urinary T3 levels are a sensitive measure of the active thryoid hormone which can give an accurate reflection of overall thyroid hormone levels. To help evaluate these intricately-linked areas, we have developed the Adrenal-Thyroid Profile. This consists of the Adrenal Stress Profile, (salivary cortisol and DHEA), as well as urinary T3 levels.

Adrenal Stress Plus Profile (sIgA and Antigliadin Antibody)

An increased cortisol level, a decreased DHEA-S level, or a decrease in the DHEA-S cortisol ratio is an indication of a chronically stressful physical or mental condition.

Stress is a major underlying cause of many chronic illnesses, from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome to food and environmental allergy. A stressful lifestyle can lead to consistently high levels of cortisol and low levels of DHEA (dehydoepiandosterone), which can be damaging to the brain and other tissues. Cortisol elevation also impacts immune responses, such as secretory IgA (sIgA) and antigliadin antibody (AGA) production. The Adrenal Stress Plus Profile is a measure of an individual's response to stress. It is also an important tool for pointing to adrenal imbalances that may be impacting a patient's health.

The adrenocortical hormones, cortisol and DHEA, are steroids that affect carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism. They also serve as modulators of thyroid function and help the body manage stress. When levels of DHEA and cortisol change, it may indicate significant variations in adrenal function that can impact an individual's energy levels, emotions, and even disease resistance.

Secretion of cortisol, regulated by the sleep-wake cycle, is characterized by a steep increase in the early morning, followed by a gradual tapering off until late evening. Stress causes elevated cortisol levels, which continue as long as the stressor is present. Stress also overrides negative feedback of cortisol in the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenocortex (HPA) axis. Prolonged stress, causing increased secretion of cortisol, may over time lead to hypertrophy of the adrenal cortex.

Among other functions, DHEA serves as a metabolic intermediate in the pathway for synthesis of testosterone, estrone, and estradiol in the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. Since DHEA in plasma has a very short half-life, most of circulating DHEA is in the sulfate form (DHEA-S). DHEA-S provides a ready source of DHEA for the production of estrogens and androgens.

The Adrenal Stress Profiles from Genova Diagnostics use a non-invasive salivary procedure to monitor the activity of the adrenal cortex and its ability to react to stress. The procedure monitors the circadian variation of cortisol and DHEA-S levels. An increased cortisol level, a decreased DHEA-S level, or a decrease in the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio is an indication of a chronically stressful physical or mental condition.

Adrenal Stress Plus Profile features:

  • Simple, timed salivary specimen collections.
  • The Adrenal Stress Plus Profile includes sIgA and AGA for the most complete assessment.
  • The Adrenal Stress Profile is an economical alternative, especially for follow-up testing.

The Adrenal Stress Plus Profile also measures sIgA and AGA. During a high stress situation, levels of sIgA decrease. Secretory IgA protects the gut from pathogenic material. Chronic cortisol elevation may be associated with high antigliadin antibodies (gliadin is a protein component found in wheat) due to intestinal hyperpermeability.

When the Adrenal Stress Profile indicates an inappropriate hormonal stress response, it is necessary to consider stress reduction through diet and lifestyle modification, and nutritional supplementation to support adrenal gland activity and enhance the restoration of the physical barrier in the gut.

Test name(s)

0043 - Adrenal Stress Plus (sIgA & Antigliadin Antibody)

Method

  • EIA
Adrenal Stress Profile

This saliva test can detect imbalances in the daily circadian secretions of the stress hormones cortisol and DHEA. Imbalances in these hormones can indicate an inappropriate response that can negatively impact energy levels, emotions, and many other health complaints. These include anxiety, chronic inflammatory conditions, allergies, chronic fatigue syndrome, insomnia, depression, migraines, headaches, recurrent infections, menstrual difficulties and infertility.

Allergix Bloodspot IgG4 Food Antibodies 30 Profile

The IgG4 Food Antibodies - Bloodspot 30™ is a blood spot test that measures the total IgG levels that react to common food antigens. The test kit is simple enough for the patient to use at home.

Why choose the Bloodspot IgG Food Antibodies Profile?

From a simple finger stick, the Bloodspot IgG4 Food Antibodies Profile offers a non-invasive alternative to a blood draw in determining IgG food reactions. Responses to 30 different foods are tested, and responses are categorized by severity from borderline to mild, moderate, or severe on the report.

Features of blood spot testing:

  • Easy to implement in any practice and great option for follow-up testing
  • Does not require venipuncture
  • Cost-effective testing and therapy
  • Easy enough for patients to use at home
  • Offers the same levels of precision and reproducibility as standard methods

Why choose IgG food allergy testing?

IgG4 antibodies are associated with non-atopic or "delayed" food reactions that can worsen or contribute to many health conditions. Food sensitivities can occur at any age, triggering a wide range of symptoms. The Bloodspot IgG4 Food Antibody Profilemeasures levels of IgG4 antibodies specific to 30 commonly offending foods clearly identifying foods causing patient reactions. Testing aids the clinician in the specific dietary change that is needed, helping to achieve positive outcomes sooner, even when combined with elimination or provocation testing.

Common offending foods eaten frequently and typically hard to avoid:

  • Milk
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Egg
  • Foods processed with molds such as black tea, breads, and fruit juices

Test name(s)

0076 - IgG4 Food Antibodies - Bloodspot 30

Method: ELISA

Allergix Coeliac Profile

The Celiac Profile - Serum - measures IgA-tTG, Serum IgA, and IgA-AGA. When IgA-tTG and IgA-AGA are positive, there is a high degree of certainty the patient has celiac disease. When IgA-tTG is positive with normal IgA-AGA, the patient may have celiac disease, but may have been following a gluten-free diet, reducing their IgA-AGA. Individuals with moderate to strong positives should follow up with a biopsy.

What is Celiac Disease?

It is estimated that more than 2 million people in the United States alone have celiac disease.1 Celiac disease is an autoimmune response to gluten. Inherited factors make some individuals sensitive to a protein called gliadin, which is a part of the total protein or gluten found in grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. When people with celiac disease ingest gluten, their immune system responds by damaging their intestinal villi - the tiny, fingerlike protrusions lining the small intestine. Villi normally allow nutrients from food to be absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Damaged villi can lead to long-term complications from impaired absorption such as malnutrition, anemia, osteoporosis, and miscarriage, among other problems.

Components of the Celiac Test:

  • IgA human tissue transglutaminase (IgA-tTG): Occurs as an immune response to tissue transglutaminase and is rarely found in individuals without celiac disease.
  • Serum IgA: Identifying serum IgA deficiencies are important for two reasons. First, IgA deficiencies can lead to false negatives for IgA-tTG. Second, individuals with an IgA deficiency have a 10 - 15 times greater risk of developing celiac disease.2
  • IgA antigliadin antibody (IgA-AGA): This antibody develops against gliadin showing consumption of gluten-containing foods that can propagate the enteropathy of celiac disease.

People with celiac disease experience varied symptoms or no symptoms, but can still develop complications of the disease. The following symptoms may indicate a need for a celiac test:

  • Unexplained iron-deficiency anemia
  • Fatigue
  • Bone or joint pain
  • Arthritis
  • Bone loss or osteoporosis
  • Depression or anxiety
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Tingling numbness in the hands and feet
  • Seizures
  • Missed menstrual periods
  • Infertility or recurrent miscarriage
  • Canker sores inside the mouth

Test name(s)

0078 - Celiac Profile

Method: ELISA and Immunoturbidometric assay

1Westberg, D.P., et al., New Strategies for diagnosis and management of celiac disease. J Am Osteopath Assoc, 2006. 18(1):p.145-51. 
2Kumar V, Celiac disease and immunoglobulin a deficiency: how effective are the serological methods of diagnosis?

Allergix IgG4 Food Antibodies 90 - Serum

The Allergix IgG4 antibody is related to “delayed” or non-atopic food reactions that exacerbate or contribute to many different health problems.

What is an IgG4 response?

An IgG4 response to food is actually more common than the IgE response, which causes an immediate reaction. These reactions are more difficult to notice since they can occur hours or even days after consumption of an offending food. In some cases, a person's reaction to a food may occur several days after eating the offending food and the link between the food and their symptoms may not be connected. These "hidden" food allergies are caused by increasing blood levels of IgG4 antibodies in reaction to specific foods. This profile measures the IgG4 levels in serum that react to 90 different foods, including commonly eaten foods such as corn, milk, egg, and wheat. A food reaction patient guide is provided with each test result.

Genova Diagnostics Innovation in IgG Antibody Testing

  • New patent-pending IgG4 assay allows our test to show less false positives leading to better patient compliance.
  • First test to quantitate IgG4
  • Eliminates non-specific binding, lowering false positives without rejecting true positives

Genova Diagnostics offers two Allergix IgG4 Food Antibody Profiles:

  • IgG4 Food Antibody Profile - measures serum levels of IgG4 antibodies specific to 90 food antigens. A four-day rotation diet is included.
  • Bloodspot IgG4 Food Antibody Profile - measures levels of IgG4 antibodies specific to 30 common offending foods from an easy-to-use finger stick. A four-day rotation diet is included.

Test name(s)

0075 - IgG4 Food Antibodies 90 Antigens

Method: ELISA

Amino Acids 40 Profile - Plasma

The Amino Acids 40 Plasma Profile

In addition to pinpointing problems in amino acid absorption and determining essential amino acid imbalances, the plasma amino acid 40 test includes evaluation of limiting, branched chain, and essential and non-essential amino acids. It also identifies several functional categories, such as neuroendocrine, vascular, collagen status and detoxification, along with five calculated ratios, and identifies vitamin and mineral insufficiencies.

Plasma Amino Acids

Fasting plasma levels represent a homeostatic balance between supply and utilization of amino acids making this specimen option ideal for repeated assessments to monitor progress of treatment. Collecting a fasting plasma specimen from a patient removes recent dietary intake effects. The following factors can effect changes over time in plasma:

  • Chronic dietary intake
  • Digestive efficiency
  • Hepatic uptake
  • Skeletal muscle's ability to maintain transamination

Why is amino acid testing important?

Amino acids, known as the "building blocks" of proteins, are found in every tissue of the body. They play a major role in nearly every chemical process that affects both physical and mental function including the formation of ligaments, tendons, bones, and antibodies, as well as regulation of enzymes and blood transport proteins. Twenty different amino acids are used to synthesize proteins.

The human body can synthesize all of the amino acids necessary to build proteins except for ten called the "essential amino acids". These ten must be included in the diet or supplemented to be in adequate supplies. Failure to obtain enough of even 1 of the 10 essential amino acids has serious health implications and can result in degradation of the body's proteins. Muscle and other protein structures may be dismantled to obtain the one amino acid that is needed.

Conditions Associated with Amino Acid Changes in Plasma:

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Epilepsy
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Impotence/Erectile pain syndromes

Test name(s)

0010 - Amino Acids - 40 analytes

Method

Reversed Phase UHPLC Method

Amino Acids, Plasma

This test quantifies levels of circulating amino acids and their metabolites, and evaluates essential and non-essential amino acid nutrient status in the blood. It also can indicate functional deficiencies of a number of mineral and vitamin co-factors. This is an ideal test for patients with suspected inadequate protein utilization and other metabolic disorders including arthritis and depression.

Amino Acids, Urine

This test measures all essential, non-essential and various metabolic products of amino acids as found in urine. This test can help to identify protein adequacy, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, protein intolerance, and disorders of metabolism. It can also assess vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

Anaemia

The Anaemia Profile measures blood levels of three important nutrients, which are often implicated in anaemia. These include folic acid, vitamin B12 and iron levels (measured in the form of ferritin).

Bloodspot Amino Acids 11 Profile

The Bloodspot Amino Acid Profile

The Bloodspot Amino Acid Profile can illuminate problems in amino acid absorption by determining essential amino acid imbalances from a simple finger stick. This profile is a great option for clinicians unable to draw blood and easy enough for the patient to collect in the comfort of their own home. A formula for a customized amino acid blend is also provided with every test result for individually formulated treatment.

This profile is available testing 11 analytes or 20 analytes. Please click on the 'Clinician Info' tab for a complete listing of analytes to see which profile is the best option for you.

Why is amino acid testing important?

Amino acids, known as the "building blocks" of proteins, are found in every tissue of the body. They play a major role in nearly every chemical process that affects both physical and mental function including the formation of ligaments, tendons, bones, as well as antibodies and regulation of enzymes and blood transport proteins. Twenty different amino acids are used to synthesize proteins.

Why use a Bloodspot test?

With just a simple finger stick, these easy-to-use blood spot tests offer a non-invasive alternative to a blood draw in determining amino acid status.

Advantages of Bloodspot testing:

  • Easy to implement in any practice
  • Does not require venipuncture
  • Cost-effective testing and therapy
  • Easy enough for patients to use at home
  • Simple and economical option for follow-up testing

Test name(s)

0013 - Amino Acids - 11 analytes

Method

HPLC

Bloodspot Amino Acids 20 Profile

The Bloodspot Amino Acid Profile

The Bloodspot Amino Acid Profile can illuminate problems in amino acid absorption by determining essential amino acid imbalances from a simple finger stick. This profile is a great option for clinicians unable to draw blood and easy enough for the patient to collect in the comfort of their own home. A formula for a customized amino acid blend is also provided with every test result for individually formulated treatment.

This profile is available testing 11 analytes or 20 analytes. Please click on the 'Clinician Info' tab for a complete listing of analytes to see which profile is the best option for you.

Why is amino acid testing important?

Amino acids, known as the "building blocks" of proteins, are found in every tissue of the body. They play a major role in nearly every chemical process that affects both physical and mental function including the formation of ligaments, tendons, bones, as well as antibodies and regulation of enzymes and blood transport proteins. Twenty different amino acids are used to synthesize proteins.

Why use a Bloodspot test?

With just a simple finger stick, these easy-to-use blood spot tests offer a non-invasive alternative to a blood draw in determining amino acid status.

Advantages of Bloodspot testing:

  • Easy to implement in any practice
  • Does not require venipuncture
  • Cost-effective testing and therapy
  • Easy enough for patients to use at home
  • Simple and economical option for follow-up testing

Test name(s)

0113 - Amino Acids - 20 analytes

Method

HPLC

Bloodspot Fatty Acids Profile

Why use Bloodspot testing ?

  • Easy to implement in any practice
  • Does not require venipuncture
  • Cost-effective testing & therapy
  • Easy enough for patients to use at home
  • Simple and economical option for follow-up testing

Why use the Bloodspot Fatty Acids Profile*?

From a simple finger stick it measures key omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and calculates key indicators to establish your optimal balance. Trans fatty acids the "bad" oils in processed foods are also measured.

  • Improve patient compliance- Testing guides and supports your recommendations for higher doses of fatty acid supplements.
  • Inflammatory balance - Improper fatty acid intake affects the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, increasing health risks.
  • Statins
    - Among the top five drugs prescribed last year, statins have been shown to unfavorably alter this inflammatory balance.
  • Increased free radical production- Consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) without increasing antioxidant intake will cause increased production of free radicals.
  • Immune suppression- Excessive consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can suppress immune function, leading to infections and poor wound healing.

Test name(s)

0241 - Bloodspot Fatty Acid Profile*

Method

GC/MS

Fatty Acids measured:

Polyunsaturated Omega-3

  • ALA (Alpha-Linolenic Acid)
  • EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid)
  • DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid)

Polyunsaturated Omega-6

  • LA (Linoleic Acid)
  • GLA (Gamma Linolenic Acid)
  • DGLA (Dihomogamma Linolenic Acid)
  • AA (Arachidonic Acid)

Trans

  • Total C:18 Trans

Indicators calculated:

  • AA : EPA ratio - A measure of "silent" inflammation
  • EPA + DHA % - An early CVD risk indicator
  • LA : GLA Ratio - Delta6 desaturase inhibition by decreased Zn or decreased Mg, increased insulin, or dietary excess of saturated or trans fatty acids
  • EPA : DGLA Ratio - Helps balance intake of Series-3 and Series-1 eicosanoid precursors
Bone Resorption Assay (Deoxypyridinoline)

Accelerated bone loss affects more than 44 million Americans 50 years of age and older. 80% of them are women. But men, younger women, and otherwise healthy, active individuals can also experience the dangerous thinning and weakening of bones associated with osteoporosis. The Bone Resorption Assay can not only identify individuals at risk, but also monitor the effect of your therapeutic interventions.

Bone Density = Formation - Resorption

Bone is a very active tissue, undergoing constant "remodeling," a process of both formation and resorption. Net loss of bone mass occurs when the resorption rate exceeds the rate of formation of new bone. The rate of bone loss is highly variable from one individual to another. Since the bone formation process is difficult to assess, it is important to identify both men and women with rapid bone resorption. These individuals are at greatest risk for osteoporosis and will benefit most from therapeutic intervention.

Bone-specific collagen breakdown

The protein matrix of bone upon which the mineral structure is accumulated consists of Type I collagen. Type I bone collagen contains unique cross-linked protein structures that give greater stability. Active bone resorption requires a breakdown of this protein structure; the peptide fragments from this breakdown are excreted in urine. Since bone resorption is a relatively constant process, the amount of specific peptides found in the urine provides an accurate measure of the rate of bone resorption.

The Bone Resorption Assay measures the deoxypyridinolinefragment of Type I collagen breakdown from a single urine specimen. This is the fragment that contains the cross-linking point and has been demonstrated to be more specific to bone resorption than breakdown fragments measured in some earlier assays.

Simple and Cost-Effective

Serial bone scans are costly and do not indicate present bone activity. Also, they can only detect changes in bone density over long periods of time, often up to twelve months. The Bone Resorption Assay detects biochemical markers which reflect present remodeling activity. The relatively low cost of this assay makes it a cost-effective tool to routinely monitor bone resorption rates and the effectiveness of therapy. Repeated measurements every six to twelve weeks will monitor the effectiveness of your therapeutic interventions and allow timely adjustments.

Features

  • Measurement of deoxypyridinoline, a more accurate assessment of current
    bone loss.
  • A simple, cost-effective assay, allowing for "real-time" monitoring of
    therapeutic efficacy.
  • A guide for interventions to restore bone health or slow bone loss.

Test name(s)

0018 - Bone Resorption Assay

Bone Resorption: Osteoporosis Risk Assessment

This test requires a single urine sample to measure pyridinium crosslinks and deoxypyridinoline, useful in identifying current rate of bone loss and efficacy of bone support therapies.

CDSA (Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis)™

This test evaluates digestion and absorption, bacterial balance and metabolism, yeast and immune status for patients with irritable bowel syndrome, indigestion, malabsorption, and other GI-related problems. Additionally, Genova offers a parasitology component with the CDSA that evaluates for parasites using microscopic examination and EIA testing. This must be ordered as the CDSAP.

CDSA 2.0™ w/o Parasitology (Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis 2.0)

The CDSA 2.0 offers the most advanced non-invasive evaluation of digestion, absorption, gut flora, and the colonic environment. This profile is indicated for all chronic GI problems, for acute bowel pattern changes, and for many systemic diseases and provides a sensitivity panel for treating pathogenic flora. Additionally, parasites can be added but must be ordered as the CDSA2.0+P.

CDSA/P (Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis/Parasitology)

This test evaluates digestion, absorption, gut flora, and the colonic environment, and evaluates for parasites using microscopic examination and EIA testing. The profile is indicated for all chronic GI problems, for acute bowel pattern changes, and for many systemic diseases and provides a sensitivity panel for treating pathogenic flora.

CDSA/P 2.0™ (Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis 2.0/Parasitology)

The CDSA 2.0 offers the most advanced non-invasive evaluation of digestion, absorption, gut flora, and the colonic environment. This profile is indicated for all chronic GI problems, for acute bowel pattern changes, and for many systemic diseases and provides a sensitivity panel for treating pathogenic flora. The addition of Parasitology testing will also indicate whether there are any current parasitic infections.

CV Health Plus Genomics™

This profile analyses blood and utilises NMR fractionation technology for state-of-the-art lipid markers and independent risk factors that illuminate the clinical complexity of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as a patient's genomic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases. Together, these markers provide a thorough assessment of cardiovascular health status, revealing the biochemical environment and cardiogenomic risk associated with inflammation, lipid deposits, endothelial dysfunction, and clotting factors underlying cardiovascular disease.

CV Health™

This profile analyses blood and utilises NMR fractionation technology for state-of-the-art lipid markers and independent risk factors that illuminate the clinical complexity of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Together, these markers provide a thorough assessment of cardiovascular health status, revealing the biochemical environment associated with inflammation, lipid deposits, endothelial dysfunction, and clotting factors underlying cardiovascular disease.

Calprotectin

Calprotectin is a highly-sensitive clinical biomarker for GI-specific inflammation. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved this non-invasive test as a way to differentiate Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) as well as also identifying other types of intestinal inflammation.

Candida Antibody Profile - Blood

Candida is a yeast that is part of our digestive flora, however in some individuals the natural balance of the gut is disrupted leading to a pathogenic form of the organism. This results in many symptoms ranging from fatigue, bloating, diarrhoea/constipation, muscle aches and headaches, to name but a few. This test is used not only for detecting the presence of the infection but also as an indicator of the stage of the condition.

Candida Antibody Profile - Saliva

Candida is a yeast that is part of our digestive flora, however in some individuals the natural balance of the gut is disrupted leading to a pathogenic form of the organism. This results in many symptoms ranging from fatigue, bloating, diarrhoea/constipation, muscle aches and headaches, to name but a few. This test is used not only for detecting the presence of the infection but also as an indicator of the stage of the condition.

Cardio/ION Profile

The Cardio/ION Profile is a combination of nutritional analyses that measures levels of fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, organic acids, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Why order the Cardio ION Profile?

One in 3 adults has some form of cardiovascular disease2. An evaluation of standard lipid markers does not provide optimal assessment of risk.

The Cardio/ION identifies key nutritionally modifiable risk factors for CVD, including:

  • Fatty acid imbalances which can lead to chronic inflammation. Current research finds levels of specific fatty acids to be strongly correlated to CVD.
  • High fibrinogen is associated with increased risk of clots and CVD.
  • Homocysteine is an important risk factor for not only CVD, but stroke and dementia as well.
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is essential for proper mitochondrial function and energy use. It also acts as an antioxidant. Cardiac cells have high mitochondrial demand. Statins can decrease CoQ10 levels.
  • Fasting insulin is an indicator of insulin resistance. Hyperinsulinaemia has been associated with a cluster of CVD risk factors.
  • Insufficient antioxidant status is associated with increased oxidation. Oxidative damage is believed to play a role in heart and vascular disease by promoting inflammation.

Go Beyond Conventional Serum Lipid Markers

The Cardio ION Profile identifies critical CVD risk factors, including:

  • Fibrinogen
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Homocysteine
  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • AA/EPA Ratio
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E (alpha tocopherol and gamma tocopherol)
  • Testosterone
  • CoQ10
  • Insulin
  • RBC Magnesium
  • EPA and DHA levels
  • Insulin

The Cardio ION Profile can also guide your treatment of many other conditions, including:

  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Immune Disorders
  • Mental/Emotional Disorders
  • Learning and Behavior Disorders
  • Multiple Chemical Sensitivities
  • Inflammatory Conditions

Test name(s)

0290 - Cardio ION Health Profile
0068 - Chemistries

Method

0290: LC/MS-MS, HPLC, UPLC, ICP/MS, GC/MS, Spectrophotometry, 
Chemiluminescence, EIA 
0068: Spectrophotometry, Automated Chemistry

1 Excerpt from Total Wellness, Sept. 2006 by Sherry Rogers, MD

2 N Hanes 1999-02, CDC/HCHS (American Heart Association)

CardioGenomicPlus™ Profile

This test evaluates genetic variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes that modulate blood pressure regulation, lipid balance, nutrient metabolism, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

Chronic Fatigue Screen

This test combines the Adrenal Stress Profile and Metabolic Analysis tests to provide a comprehensive analysis of various factors that may be implicated in chronic fatigue and other related conditions.

CoQ10 + Vitamin Profile - Serum

Serum levels of the fat-soluble vitamins A and E, beta-carotene, and coenzyme Q10 are measures of total body status of these antioxidant nutrients.

What is Coenzyme Q10?

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is produced by the human body and is necessary for the basic functioning of cells. CoQ10 levels are reported to decrease with age and to be low in individuals with certain chronic diseases. Some prescription drugs may also lower CoQ10 levels.

Why should I measure Coenzyme Q10?

CoQ10 is essential for production of cell energy in the cell membrane or mitochondria. Using cholesterol lowering drugs, such as statins, can interfere with CoQ10 production, compromising cellular energy production. High performance athletes are candidates for testing CoQ10, as well as individuals that appear to have mitochondrial dysfunction, neurological or skeletal muscle disorders. Cases of genetic inability to produce adequate CoQ10 have been identified and treated successfully. Measuring both direct and indirect biomarkers of CoQ10 sufficiency in order to appropriately diagnose and treat individuals, and monitor CoQ10 administration, can markedly improve outcomes and prevent mitochondrial-related disease.

Why should I use the Coenzyme Q10 Profile?

Genova Diagnostic profiles enable both direct and functional measurement of CoQ10 adequacy for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. To further assess your need for CoQ10, a Lipid Peroxides Profile may also be performed.

Conditions relating to CoQ10 deficiency:

  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Heart conditions
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Mitochondrial disease
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Parkinson disease

Test name(s)

0033 - Coenzyme Q10 Plus Vitamins

Method

UPLC

Coeliac Profile - (Gluten Sensitivity)

Coeliac disease, also called coeliac sprue or gluten sensitivity enteropathy, is caused by an inability to properly digest foods containing gluten. Gluten is found in many grains including wheat, oats, rye, barley and spelt. The gliadin fraction is believed to be the problem. Coeliac disease is chronic, has a genetic component and may affect several family members. This is a life-long condition in which the ingestion of the gluten component of wheat and related cereals leads to damage to the intestinal lining, skin reactions or the nervous system.

Complete Hormones™

Complete Hormones is the most comprehensive urinary hormone metabolism evaluation designed to assist in the prevention and treatment of hormone-related symptoms and conditions. This provides clues about menstrual irregularities, infertility, menopause, fatigue, breast cancer, and osteoporosis.

Complete Male Hormones™

This test analyses key urinary markers from an overnight urine collection, providing insights into a wide range of disorders, from reduced libido and muscle mass to cardiovascular disease.

Comprehensive Adrenal Stress Profile

The Comprehensive Adrenal Stress Profile comprises of the standard Adrenal Stress Profile (which assesses cortisol and DHEA levels) and Secretory IgA (SIgA). Imbalances of cortisol, DHEA and SIgA can lead to the most common health complaints of the 21st century. Both excesses and deficiencies of DHEA and cortisol have been implicated in the aetiology of various illnesses and immune suppression.

Comprehensive Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

A comprehensive evaluation of cardiovascular risk, measuring various important markers such as cholesterol, triglycerides, and homocysteine, as well as key inflammatory markers. This unique test combines both traditional and cutting-edge indicators of cardiovascular health that can often be corrected with nutritional intervention.

Comprehensive Elemental Analysis - RBC's

This test measures RBC intracellular concentrations of toxic elements and nutrient elements. This is an ideal test for patients suspected of recent toxic element exposure and for evaluation of intracellular mineral nutrient status.

Comprehensive Elemental Profile - Urine

This test measures urinary excretion of nutrient elements and toxic metals, including "classic" toxic metals such as lead, mercury, and arsenic. This is an ideal test for patients suspected of toxic element exposure as well as potential nutrient mineral wasting.

Comprehensive Food Allergy Profile

This comprehensive analysis combines the FACTest™, IgE Food Panel test and the Coeliac marker tTgA. Please see individual test Pages for further information.

Comprehensive Parasitology (CP)

This test evaluates stool for presence of parasites and levels of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora, pathogenic bacteria, and yeast. This is an ideal test for patients with changes in bowel pattern, especially for those who have been travelling abroad. Sensitivity panels comprising commonly used pharmaceutical and natural antimicrobials are tested against bacterial/ yeast cultures to help identify the most efficient way of addressing imbalances.

Cortisol Awakening Response

The Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) test is a salivary assay available to assess adrenal dysfunction. The CAR test involves measuring five separate salivary samples over an hour after waking, and has been extensively researched and validated as a means of analysing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity.

DHEA - Saliva

This single saliva sample measures DHEA levels, a stress hormone that decreases with age and can affect all Areas of health and wellbeing. It also allows for monitoring of DHEA supplementation, which should be carefully monitored.

DetoxiGenomic® Profile

This test evaluates SNPs associated with increased risk of impaired detoxification capacity especially when exposed to environmental toxins. It also identifies individuals potentially susceptible to adverse drug reactions.

Essential & Metabolic Fatty Acids Analysis

This test evaluates the level of red cell membrane fatty acids, imbalances of which significantly affect inflammatory and other disorders. By knowing the various fatty acid levels, one can re-establish a balance using nutritional intervention.

Essential Estrogens™

This test provides a focused overview of oestrogen balance in both pre- and post-menopausal women, using a single urine sample to evaluate dynamics of sex steroid metabolism that can profoundly affect a woman’s health throughout her lifetime.

EstroGenomic™ Profile

This test evaluates genetic variations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in genes that modulate oestrogen metabolism, coagulation, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis.

Estronex Profile - Urine

The Estronex Profile measures six important estrogen metabolites and their ratios to help women, and even men, assess whether he or she is at risk of developing estrogen sensitive cancers.

Estrogen sensitive cancers include uterine, ovarian, cervical, prostate, and even head and neck cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 207,090 new cases of invasive breast cancer are expected to occur among women in the US during 2010; about 1,970 new cases are expected in men. Avoid chances of becoming a statistic and assess estrogen levels and decrease risk with the Estronex Profile.

The Estronex Profile measures six important estrogen metabolites, and ratios, including:

The "Good" Estrogen

  • 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) - high levels of 2-OHE1 are ideal to reduce cancer growth.
  • 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) - shown to exhibit anti-carcinogenic effects.
  • 2-methoxyestrone (2-OMeE1) - OMeE1 has shown to have anticancer effects and is ideal in high levels.
  • 4-methoxyestrone (4-OMeE1) - as a non-cancerous metabolite, OMeE1 generally does not require treatment at high levels in the body.

The "Bad" Estrogen

  • 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1) - considered a "bad" estrogen, 4-OHE1 levels should be low, as high levels may react negatively with damaged DNA.
  • 16-α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) - also considered a "bad" estrogen, 16α-OHE1 in high levels may encourage tumor development.

The Ratios

  • 2-OHE:16α-OHE1 (2:16 ratio) - 2:16 ratios less than 2.0 indicate increasing long-term risk for breast, cervical, and other estrogen sensitive cancers. Importantly, nutritional interventions can help raise Estronex 2:16 ratios and decrease long-term risk. Studies also indicate that this risk is modifiable!
  • 2-OHE1:2-OMeE1 - a high level of 2-OHE1:2-OMeE1 may also indicate imbalanced estrogen metabolism and low activity in the COMT gene. Evaluation of methylation activity is recommended.

Advantages of the Estronex Profile:

  • An easy-to-collect first-morning urine specimen; no blood draw is necessary!
  • Cost-effective method to assess estrogen metabolism allowing clinicians to retest often to monitor therapy in patients.
  • Easy to incorporate into a breast cancer prevention program.
  • Ideal for men to evaluate risk of breast and prostate cancer.

Test name(s):

0142 - Estronex Profile

0145 - Estronex Profile with Bone Resorption

Method:

  • UPLC Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Estronex with Bone Resorption

The Estronex Profile with Bone Resorption measures six important estrogen metabolites, as well as current bone loss. Assessment includes:

The "Good" Estrogen

  • 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) - high levels of 2-OHE1 are ideal to reduce cancer growth.
  • 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) - shown to exhibit anti-carcinogenic effects.
  • 2-methoxyestrone (2-OMeE1) - OMeE1 has shown to have anticancer effects and is ideal in high levels.
  • 4-methoxyestrone (4-OMeE1) - as a non-cancerous metabolite, OMeE1 generally does not require treatment at high levels in the body.

The "Bad" Estrogen

  • 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1) - considered a "bad" estrogen, 4-OHE1 levels should be low, as high levels may react negatively with damaged DNA.
  • 16-α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1) - also considered a "bad" estrogen, 16α-OHE1 in high levels may encourage tumor development.

The Ratios

  • 2-OHE:16α-OHE1 (2:16 ratio) - 2:16 ratios less than 2.0 indicate increasing long-term risk for breast, cervical, and other estrogen sensitive cancers. Importantly, nutritional interventions can help raise Estronex 2:16 ratios and decrease long-term risk. Studies also indicate that this risk is modifiable!
  • 2-OHE1:2-OMeE1 - a high level of 2-OHE1:2-OMeE1 may also indicate imbalanced estrogen metabolism and low activity in the COMT gene. Evaluation of methylation activity is recommended.

Collagen Breakdown (follow same treatment as "The Ratios", et al)

Deoxypyridinoline - a fragment of Type I collagen breakdown that contains the cross-linking point and has been demonstrated to be more specific to bone resorption than breakdown fragments measured in some earlier assays.

Test name(s):

0145 - Estronex Profile with Bone Resorption

Method:

  • UPLC Tandem Mass Spectrometry
FACTest™ - Food Allergen Cellular Test

Food allergy is a common problem in children and adults. Many patients present with adverse reactions to foods, but are not diagnosed with 'allergies' by routine methods. To date, the traditional diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin-prick tests, the determination of specific IgE class antibodies from serum, and the gold standard 'food challenge', which is both cumbersome and problematic to perform. It is now known that the underlying mechanisms for allergy are not restricted to IgE-mediated reactions alone, but that there are many different mechanisms that can give rise to these allergy symptoms. There is therefore a marked discrepancy between those displaying allergy reactions, and those with traditionally diagnosed food allergy. This advanced allergy assay provides a powerful tool for the detection of adverse reaction to food and additives. By measuring the cellular reaction to food allergens, both IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated reactions can be reliably detected.

FACTest™ Additives Profile

This profile measures reactions to commonly found food additives and preservatives. Food additives are capable of inducing pseudoallergic reactions similar to aspirin and NSAIDâ¿¿s. These reactions often imitate IgE mediated immediate type reactions. The exact mechanisms of these reactions are still not clearly understood. The most accepted hypothesis describes the reaction as a non-immunological activation of inflammatory cells like mast cells, basophils and others. Cellular analysis represents a proven technology for the detection of such reactions.

FACTest™ Antibiotics & Analgesics

This profile measures reactions to commonly used antibiotics and analgesics. Hypersensitivity to aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a well recognized condition and has attracted increasing attention in the last four decades. This syndrome presents either in the airways as recurrent rhinitis and followed by asthma attacks, or by skin manifestations such as urticaria and angioedema. Allergic reactions to antibiotics are the most common cause of adverse drug reactions mediated by specific immunological mechanisms. Determination of specific IgE, although indicative, often has a limited diagnostic value, since drug-specific serum IgE usually decreases or disappears within weeks or months after the last exposure. A number of well-controlled and validated studies have clearly shown that ASA/NSAID and antibiotics can induce sLT release and degranulation of basophils detected by cellular analysis.

FACTest™ Dairy and Grain Profile

This test measures sensitivities against all cow, sheep, goat, and soya products as well as all grains and yeast. A marker called tissue transglutaminase (tTGA), which is highly specific at identifying untreated Coeliac Disease, is also measured.

FACTest™ and IgE Inhalant

This combined panel assesses food intolerances and inhalant allergies together. This is particularly useful for those with hay fever and/or sensitivities to nuts or fruits.

Fat-Soluble Vitamins Profile (A, E, D, K, CoQ10 & Beta-Carotene)

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins Profile is a great tool to gain an overall perspective of a patient's health, nutrient processing, and dietary insufficiencies. Serum levels of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K plus beta-carotene and coenzyme Q10 are measured to evaluate total body status of these antioxidant nutrients.

What are the benefits of measuring all fat-soluble vitamins together?

Testing these nutrients together in one panel is important because nutrient functionality is dependent on the adequate supply of each nutrient. For bone health, taking vitamin D without adequate levels of vitamins A, E, and K may be detrimental since all are needed for proper bone calcification. Antioxidants, such as vitamin E, CoQ10, and beta-carotene, help ensure proper oxidation-reduction chain reactions.

Vitamins measured include:

  • Vitamin A specific maintenance roles have been reported for vision, bone growth, skin and mucosal integrity, spermatogenesis, as well as protection against cataracts, atherosclerosis, macular degeneration and cancer.
  • Vitamin D, "the sunshine vitamin", is necessary for maintaining blood levels of calcium and phosphorus for healthy teeth and bones. Vitamin D also plays a vital role in immune functions and is essential for reducing cancer risk and health maintenance.
  • Vitamin E is an important free radical scavenger and protective antioxidant for membrane tissues, helping to stop damage to healthy cells. Both gamma and alpha tocopherol are reported to better assess oxidative stress and inflammation.
  • Vitamin K is important in the deposition of ionic calcium needed for proper blood coagulation and bone formation. Research finds vitamin K to be a potential protector against osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and possibly cancer.
  • Beta-carotene serves as an important antioxidant in keeping cells healthy, and also serving as a pool that is converted to vitamin A when needed. Beta-carotene also helps to identify a healthy diet.
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) allows food energy to be converted into cellular energy. Organs with the highest need for energy, such as the heart, lungs, and liver, require high levels of CoQ10. CoQ10 also protects cells from free radicals, helps with proper mitochondrial function, and is associated with cardiovascular health.

The Fat-Soluble Vitamins Profile tests for levels of:

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K
  • Beta-Carotene
  • Coenzyme Q10

Assessing fat-soluble vitamin levels is essential in patients with the following conditions:

  • Impaired immune function
  • Reoccuring infections
  • Neurological disease
  • Impaired digestion and absorption
  • Heart disease
  • Osteopenia and Osteoporosis
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Increased oxidative stress
  • Poor dietary intake

Test name(s)

0036 - Fat-Soluble Vitamins Profile - Serum

Method

UPLC; EIA; Chemiluminescence

Fatty Acids Profile - Erythrocytes

Why Test Fatty Acids?

  • Improve patient compliance: Testing guides and supports your recommendations for higher doses of fatty acid supplements
  • Inflammatory balance: Improper fatty acid intake affects the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, increasing health risks
  • Statins: Among the top five drugs prescribed last year, statins have been shown to unfavorably alter this inflammatory balance.
  • Increased free radical production: Consumption ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) without increasing antioxidantintake will cause increased production of free radicals.
  • Immune suppression: Excessive consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can suppress immune function, leading to infections and poor wound healing.

Test name(s)

0041 - Fatty Acids (plus ratios)

Method

GC/MS

Fatty Acids Profile - Plasma

Why Test Fatty Acids?

  • Improve patient compliance: Testing guides and supports your recommendations for higher doses of fatty acid supplements
  • Inflammatory balance: Improper fatty acid intake affects the balance of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, increasing health risks
  • Statins: Among the top five drugs prescribed last year, statins have been shown to unfavorably alter this inflammatory balance.
  • Increased free radical production: Consumption ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) without increasing antioxidantintake will cause increased production of free radicals.
  • Immune suppression: Excessive consumption of omega-3 fatty acids can suppress immune function, leading to infections and poor wound healing.

Test name(s)

0040 - Fatty Acids (plus ratios)

Method

GC/MS

Ferritin

Ferritin is the most sensitive marker for an iron deficiency as it is the main storage form of iron in the body. This test measures serum levels.

Functional Blood Chemistry Profile

This biochemistry analysis is a full haematology and biochemical assessment for Glucose & lipid metabolism, Renal Function, Adrenal Function, Liver Function, Thyroid & Parathyroid Function and Iron & Inflammation status.

GI Effects Chemistries Profile

The GI Effects Chemistries Profile focuses on proper gut function. This profile helps identify inflammatory and immune response, which is important since the gut makes up almost 80% of the body's immune system. Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), inflammation, immunology, red blood cells, as well as digestion and absorption abilities are the focus of this GI profile.

The GI Effects Chemistries Profile is an affordable follow-up test to help practitioners monitor targeted patient therapy. It also requires only one sample collection leading to improved patient compliance.

Test name(s)

2120 - Chemistry Profile - Digestive, inflammation, absorption

Method: GC/MS, HPLC, EIA, Automated Chemistry, Colorimetric

GI Effects Comprehensive Profile (inc. 2205, 2120, 2110)

The GI Effects Comprehensive Profile is unlike any other stool analysis profile, going beyond the standard parameters for identifying gastrointestinal disorders.

Video: Introducing the GI Effects 2200

The GI Effects Comprehensive Profile uses the best of both culture-based and molecular approaches for stool-based gastrointestinal diagnostics. O&P technology can identify an unlimited number of parasites and is the gold standard diagnostic methodology for parasite detection, while PCR technology provides an expansive assessment of anaerobic gut microflora.

Advantages of the GI Effects Stool Profile

  • Enhanced Clinical Utility
    Clinical utility for parasite detection is enhanced with O&P technology, the current clinical diagnostic standard of care. Optimized Parasite Recovery (OPR) is Genova Diagnostics’ version of O&P technology which utilizes a concentration process to optimize parasite detection. Because the vast majority of commensal gut microflora are anaerobes that present culture challenges, microbial DNA analysis is utilized to optimize the assessment of gut microbial composition.
  • 1-Day or 3-Day Sample Collection Option
    Parasite Recovery Literature suggests that >90% of enteric parasitic infections are detected in a sample from a single stool collection. Increased recovery results from the collection of additional specimens on separate days, and given that, scientific bodies such as the Centers for Disease Control recommend a minimum of three samples on three separate days to optimize parasite detection. Parasites have been detected in 20-24% of U.S. patients with mild to moderate GI symptoms.

Why Use Stool Analysis?

Gastrointestinal function is important for general health. The intestinal tract contains significant amounts of bacteria which, when imbalanced, have been associated with IBS and IBD, immune disorders, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Balancing gut microflora is key for optimizing digestion and absorption of nutrients, as well as metabolic functions. Poor digestion and malabsorption can lead to immune dysfunction, nutritional insufficiencies, mental/emotional disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

  • Anaerobes
    Anaerobes, making up over 95 percent of microbiota in the gut, can be identified using GI Effects.
  • Parasites
    Using O&P (OPR) technology, an unlimited number of parasites can be detected. To date, over 40 parasitic organisms have been identified.
  • Adiposity Index
    Measures imbalances of the two predominant bacterial Groups in the human GI tract, bacteroidetes and firmicutes, which have been associated with obesity in some studies.
  • Absorption
    Indicates absorption issues with elevated levels of long-chain fatty acids, cholesterol, or total fat (the sum of gut lipids).
  • Inflammation
    Lactoferrin is a marker of gut immune function, and is clinically utilized to identify the presence of gastrointestinal inflammation.
  • Sensitivities
    Pharmaceutical and botanical sensitivities are included.

Test name(s)

GI Effects 2200: Comprehensive Profile (Includes 2205, 2110, and 2120)

Method: Microscopic examination, Macroscopic evaluation, EIA, PCR, GC/MS, HPLC, Automated Chemistry, Colorimetric

Pathogens (C. difficile, H. pylori, Shiga Toxin E. coli, and Campylobacter spp) (Available as EIA add-ons)

GI Effects Microbial Ecology Profile (inc. 2110)

The GI Effects Microbial Ecology Profile uses DNA analysis to identify microbiota including anaerobes, a previously immeasurable area of the gut environment. DNA assessment is highly accurate and reports results as specific numbers.

The Microbial Ecology Profile

Over 99% of the bacteria in the gut are anaerobes, but in the cecum, aerobic bacteria reach high densities. Under normal homeostatic conditions, the intestinal microflora are of central importance in preventing colonization by pathogens, termed “colonization resistance.” Microorganisms perform a host of useful functions, such as fermenting unused energy substrates, communicating with the immune system, preventing growth of harmful species, regulating the development of the gut, producing vitamins for the host (such as biotin and vitamin K), and producing hormones.

The Microbial Profile focuses on predominate, opportunistic, and pathogenic bacteria, as well as yeast/fungi, parasites, adiposity index, and microbial and fungi sensitivities. The Microbial Profile is also an easy and cost-effective follow-up testing option to monitor targeted therapy in patients.

Advantages of the GI Effects Stool Profiles

  • Greater Accuracy
    Microbial DNA analysis improves the accuracy of results and includes both aerobes and anaerobes. Anaerobes comprise over 95% of the bacteria in the gut.
  • Antibiotic resistance genes
    DNA analysis detects organisms possessing genes that give rise to antibiotic resistance, offering clinicians a superior tool for effective patient management.
  • Single Sample Collection
    The GI Effects Stool Profile requires only one sample collection leading to improved patient compliance.
  • Increased Sensitivity
    GI Effects detects as few as 5 cells per gram.

Test name

2205 - Microbial Profile - Bacteria, fungi/yeast, parasites

Product Line: GI / Immunology

Method : PCR

Pathogens (C. difficile, H. pylori, Shiga Toxin E. coli, and Campylobacter spp) (Available as EIA add-ons)

GI Effects Mycology Profile

The GI Effects Profile uses DNA analysis to identify microbiota including anaerobes, a previously immeasurable area of the gut environment. DNA assessment is highly accurate and reports results as specific numbers.

The Mycology Profile

The Mycology Profile is also an easy and cost-effective follow-up testing option to monitor targeted therapy in patients for yeast/fungi overgrowth.

Yeast in small amounts is considered normal. However, yeast overgrowth in the gut has been linked to many chronic conditions, in part because of antigenic responses in some patients to even low rates of yeast growth. Potential symptoms can include diarrhea, headache, bloating, atopic dermatitis, and fatigue. The GI Effects Mycology Profile identifies yeast and fungi, in real quantitative amounts, as well as fungal sensitivities of pharmaceuticals and botanicals.

Advantages of the GI Effects Stool Profiles

  • Greater Accuracy
    Microbial DNA analysis improves the accuracy of results and includes both aerobes and anaerobes. Anaerobes comprise over 95% of the bacteria in the gut.
  • Antibiotic resistance genes
    DNA analysis detects organisms possessing genes that give rise to antibiotic resistance, offering clinicians a superior tool for effective patient management.
  • Single Sample Collection
    The GI Effects Stool Profile requires only one sample collection leading to improved patient compliance.

Test name(s)

2110 - Mycology Profile - Fungi/yeast only

Method: PCR

Gliadin Sensitivity Profile

To assess gluten sensitivity, this profile offers a simple, salivary collection measuring anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). AGA measures the body's response to gluten while SIgA defends against antigenic and infectious attacks at the mucosal surfaces.

Test name(s)

0072 — Gliadin Sensitivity Profile

Method

EIA

Analytes

  • Secretory IgA
  • Antigliadin IgA
Gut Immunology Profile

This test evaluates immunological imbalance specific to gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disease activity specific to the gastrointestinal tract. A simple, reliable and non-invsive test, the GI profile measure calprotectin and Eosinophil protein X. Increased levels of EPX have been found in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, with elevations correlating with disease activity.

Helicobacter Pylori Breath Test

Helicobacter pylori is believed to be the only bacteria able to withstand the acidity of the stomach and has been shown to be the single biggest cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. It is now believed that virtually all-abdominal ulcers, apart from drug-induced forms, are caused by a Helicobacter pylori infection. The breath procedure is a highly accurate and non-invasive diagnostic tool utilising a C13 powder to detect the presence of an active H.pylori infection.

Helicobacter Pylori Stool Test

Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial infection strongly associated with persistent stomach inflammation. Such inflammation can significantly increase the risk of stomach or duodenal ulcer formation. The stool test is a convenient, non-invasive way of testing for H.pylori for both diagnosis and follow-up testing. This marker can also be added to other larger stool tests by request.

Homocysteine

Total plasma homocysteine levels are widely implicated in a variety of clinical conditions and are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular, atherothrombotic and cerebrovascular disease. Certain key nutrients, including Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6 and folic acid, are necessary for homocysteine metabolism; therefore this test can also provide valuable information about a patientâ¿¿s nutritional status relating to these nutrients.

Hormonal Health™

This test provides a focused overview of hormonal balance in both pre- and post-menopausal women, using serum to evaluate the dynamics of sex steroid metabolism that can profoundly affect a woman's health throughout her lifetime.

IBStatus

IBStatus offers a concise look at the overall health of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is a non-invasive evaluation that uses biotechnology to evaluate digestion, absorption, inflammation, and parasite infection. This test is designed to specifically help identify inflammatory conditions (including subclinical inflammation) associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), NSAID enteropathy, and post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS).

ION Profiles - Blood & Urine

The ION (Individual•Optimal•Nutrition) Profile is a combination of analyses that measures levels of organic acids, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, offering a complete evaluation of functions that impact patients' mental and physical well-being.

Over time, functional nutritional inadequacies can result in a variety of chronic health conditions. The ION Profile can help determine the basis for these conditions.

Included profiles

  • Organix Profile - reveals nutritional and metabolic impairments.
  • Amino Acid Profile - determines essential amino acid imbalances that affect both physical and mental function.
  • Nutrient and Toxic Element Profiles - identify a patient's toxic burden and mineral status.
  • Fatty Acid Profile - helps identify the right balance of fatty acids that can impact health and development.
  • Antioxidant Vitamins - measure vitamins involved in antioxidant functions.
  • Coenzyme Q10 - measures total body status of this antioxidant nutrient and energy pathway cofactor.
  • Lipid Peroxides - measures total serum lipid peroxidation, an indication of whole body free radical activity.
  • Homocysteine - identifies total homocysteine in plasma, and elevated levels are an independent risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease and atherothrombotic cerebrovascular disease.

The ION Profile is Helpful in Cases of:

Heart Disease: where deficiencies of magnesium, taurine, carnitine, fatty acids and other important substances commonly accompany heart disease. Re-supplying depleted nutrients greatly aids in prevention and recovery.

Obesity and Weight Issues: many obese persons have multiple nutritional deficiencies. Dietary improvement and nutritional supplementation based on ION test results help many achieve more active metabolism. In the process, they are able to eliminate excess fat and fluid.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: an enigmatic disorder that frequently involves mitochondrial inefficiencies (deficits in cellular energy production) that can be revealed by comparing the organic acids, amino acids and minerals test results.

Immune System Disorders: where deficiencies in a wide variety of nutrients, from amino acids to fatty acids to zinc, are seen.

Developmental Delays: increasing numbers of children are experiencing dramatic improvements in development and achievement due to supplementation based on ION test results.

Mood Disorders: often have underlying biochemical imbalances which are revealed by testing for organic acids, amino acids, minerals, and fatty acids.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivities: functional nutrient levels are affected, including many of those involved in cellular respiration. The ION profile can determine where imbalances occur.

Test name(s)

0090 - ION™ Profile

0068 - Chemistries

0490 - ION Profile w/Amino Acids 40

Method: 0090: LC/MS-MS, HPLC, UPLC, ICP/MS, GC/MS, Spectrophotometry, Chemiluminescence 0068: Spectrophotometry, Automated Chemistry

IgE 10 Food Panel

Panels consisting of 10 foods can be created to suit the individual and will be tested for acute IgE allergies. Please contact the laboratory to discuss these further.

IgE 5 Food Panel

Panels consisting of either 5 foods can be created to suit the individual and will be tested for acute IgE allergies. Please contact the laboratory to discuss these further.

IgE Food Panel

This test measures levels of specific IgE antibodies for acute classical allergies, against 37 common foods. Symptoms usually present immediately and include hayfever, asthma, urticaria, swollen/itchy throat, tongue, lips, gums, watery/itchy/swollen eyes, rhinitis, colic, anaphylaxis, eczema, and skin rashes.

IgE Inhalant Panel

This panel identifies classical (IgE) inhalant allergies to 27 of the most common airborne allergens. Symptoms usually present immediately and include hayfever, asthma, urticaria, watery/itchy/swollen eyes, rhinitis, eczema, and skin rashes.

IgG Spices

IgG antibodies are associated with 'delayed' or non-atopic food reactions that exacerbate or contribute to many different health problems. Simultaneous high levels of many IgG antibodies can also be associated with intestinal hyper permeability. This profile consists of 24 of the frequently used culinary herbs and spices that could otherwise be overlooked.

ImmunoGenomic® Profile

This test evaluates genetic variations in genes that modulate immune and inflammatory activity. These variations can affect balance between cell (Th-1) and humoral (Th-2) immunity, trigger potential defects in immune system defense, and stimulate mechanisms underlying chronic, overactive inflammatory responses. (Please note that genomic profiles are available through a registered practitioner only).

Individual Allergens

Individual IgE allergens are available on request. Please contact the laboratory to discuss these further.

Macroscopic Examination for Worms

Examination for adult cestodes, nematodes and trematodes or macroscopic worms or pieces of worms that may be shed in the stool.

Male Hormonal Health™

The Male Hormonal Health™ is a hormonal test which provides a focused overview of hormonal balance in men.

Male Hormones Plus

This profile measures the hormones, cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and melatonin and allows for the detection of hormonal imbalances related to symptoms of male andropause, rapid ageing, low vitality and sexual dysfunction. Optimal health is dependent on the balance of these hormones, not just a single hormone.

Melatonin Profile

Melatonin is a hormone that controls the daily circadian rhythm and is best known for its role in helping to initiate sleep. Imbalances can also include depression, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), behavioural changes, mood disorders, and stress among others.

Menopause

Menopause Profile is a non-invasive salivary/urine assessment that measures levels of progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone in addition to markers of bone turnover and oestrogen metabolism. Results can be used to identify imbalances contributing to menopausal symptoms as well as various systemic disorders and provides a valuable assessment of menopausal related conditions.

Menopause Plus

Menopause Plus is a comprehensive, non-invasive salivary/urine assay for the analysis of oestradiol, progesterone, testosterone and oestrogen metabolites as well as cortisol, DHEA, and melatonin. Results can be used to identify imbalances contributing to menopause symptoms and various systemic disorders, and to determine the need for hormone replacement therapy as well as the effect of stress hormones on sex hormones.

MetSyn Guide™

This profile measures stages of pre-diabetes and progression toward type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or Cardio-Metabolic Syndrome using metabolic, inflammatory, and lipid biomarkers.MetSyn Guide™ focuses on the importance of early assessment and correction of risk factors.

Metabolic Analysis Profile (MAP) (Organic Acids)

The Metabolic Analysis Profile (MAP) is an important clinical tool for treating imbalances underlying metabolic, nutritional, and neurological disorders. This test assesses four main Areas of metabolism: gastrointestinal function and dysbiosis markers, cellular energy production, neurotransmitter metabolites and an assessment of nutrient sufficiency. Using test results, practitioners can design comprehensive, customised therapies to restore optimal metabolic health.

Metabolic Syndrome Profile

Insulin resistance/insensitivity is closely linked with obesity, and occurs when the body stops being responsive to insulin. This leads to higher and higher levels of insulin being secreted by the pancreas in an attempt to maintain normal blood sugar levels. This profile measures other factors associated with 'Metabolic Syndrome' including hsCRP, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and glycosylated haemoglobin - a marker of long-term elevated blood glucose levels.

Microbiology Profile

This test evaluates stool for levels of beneficial flora, imbalanced flora, and possible pathogens.

Neopterin/Biopterin Profile Urine

Oxidative Products of Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)

Neopterin and biopterin are by-products of the redox reactions involving tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 functions as a cofactor for the enzymes responsible for the production of monoamine neurotransmitters (ephinepherine, norepinephrine, DOPA, serotonin), and as a cofactor in nitric oxide production. Low biopterin levels may reflect insufficient BH4 status. Restricted BH4 cofactor availability has been suggested as an etiologic factor in:

  • Neurological Disease - Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Autism, Depression, DOPA-responsive Dystonia
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Inborn-errors of metabolism: Phenylketonuria, Hyperphenylalaninemia

Neopterin is a marker of inflammation, allowing detection and monitoring of inflammatory processes. The origin of the inflammation may be the small intestine pathology that so often requires treatment in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Neopterin is elevated in:

  • Infections
  • Autoimmune diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Lupus, and Atopic Asthma
  • Malignant diseases
  • Psychiatric disorders
  • Sleep-disordered breathing
  • Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Neopterin/Biopterin Profile:

  • A simple overnight urine specimen; no blood draw is necessary!
  • Order this profile by itself or get a special discount when you order it as an add-on with: Organix Profiles, ION Profiles, Cardio/ION Profile, TRIAD Profile, or Toxic Effects Porphyrins Profile.

Test name(s)

0088 - Neopterin/Biopterin Profile

Method

LC/MS-MS, Spectrophotometry

NeuroGenomic™ Profile

This test evaluates single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that modulate methylation, glutathione conjugation, oxidative protection and the potential to evaluate vascular oxidation.

NutrEval Plus

Unlike any other nutritional assessments, NutrEval® provides a framework of core nutrients in 5 key areas: Antioxidants, B Vitamins, Digestive Support, Essential Fatty Acids, and Minerals. The Amino Acids are measured in a convenient first-morning urine collection. The NutrEval Plus also includes the FACTest™: a cellular food allergy assessment, covering both IgE mediated and non-IgE mediated inflammatory reactions.

NutrEval® (not including FACTest)

Unlike any other nutritional assessments, NutrEval® provides a framework of core nutrients in 5 key areas: Antioxidants, B Vitamins, Digestive Support, Essential Fatty Acids, and Minerals. The Amino Acids are measured in a convenient first-morning urine collection.

Nutrient & Toxic Elements - Blood

Erythrocyte and whole blood toxic element levels are good indicators of body pools of essential elements as well as the toxic elements aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury. TheGenova Diagnostics Nutrient and Toxic Elements Profile is an especially accurate way of determining whole body status of potassium and selenium.

Whole Blood generally reflects increased or recent exposure to toxic elements. The Genova Diagnostics Toxic Metals Profileshows levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury.

Nutrient elements are measured in erythrocytes and toxic elements are measured in whole blood. One exception is selenium, which is measured in whole blood as a reliable index of selenium status.

Test name(s)

0022 - Nutrient and Toxic Elements

Method

  • ICP/MS
ONE (Optimal Nutritional Evaluation) FMV®

The ONE FMV® will help you understand your patients' individual diet and supplementation needs. By assessing organic acids and amino acids, this panel offers personalised functional nutrition assessments covering Antioxidants, B Vitamins, Digestive Support, and Minerals.

Oestrogen Metabolism Assessment

This urine test measures 2-hydroxy and 16-alpha-hydroxy oestrogens, providing a convenient way of evaluating clinical interventions aimed at optimising oestrogen metabolism.

Oestrogen Metabolism Plus

This test provides a comprehensive analysis of urinary oestrogen metabolites that correlate with breast and prostate cancer risk, including 2-hydroxy, 4-hydroxy and 16-alpha-hydroxy oestrogens, and their methylated byproducts. This provides valuable information about oestrogen-related diseases, such as breast cancer and prostate disease risk.

Organix Basic Profile - Urine

The Organix Profile provides a view into the body's cellular metabolic processes and the efficiency of metabolic function. Identifying metabolic Blocks that can be treated nutritionally allows individual tailoring of interventions to help maximize patient responses and lead to improved patient outcomes.

Advantages of the Organix Basic Profile

  • Innovative Method - The LC/MS-MS method, which is also used to screen newborns for metabolic disorders, requires very little sample preparation and processing. This technology provides more stability, accuracy, and sensitivity in measuring organic acids at low levels for optimum test results.
  • Single Urine Specimen - A single overnight urine collection is easy for patients, leading to increased patient compliance.
  • Follow-up Testing Option - The Organix Basic offers an easy and affordable follow-up testing option to monitor targeted therapy in patients when dysbiosis markers are unneeded.

Why use an organic acids test?

Organic acids are metabolic intermediates produced in pathways of central energy production, detoxification, neurotransmitter breakdown, and intestinal microbial activity. Accumulation of specific organic acids in urine often signals a metabolic inhibition or block. This abnormality may be due to a nutrient deficiency, an inherited enzyme deficit, toxic build-up, or drug effect. An organic acids urine test helps reveal activity and changes at the metabolic level, helping practitioners discover hidden issues and pinpoint where therapeutic focus is needed.

Test name(s)

0291 - Organix Basic Profile

Method

LC/MS-MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Organix Comprehensive Profile - Urine

The Organix Comprehensive Profile provides a view into the body's cellular metabolic processes and the efficiency of metabolic function. Identifying metabolic Blocks that can be treated nutritionally allows individual tailoring of interventions that maximize patient responses and lead to improved patient outcomes. Organic acids are metabolic intermediates that are produced in pathways of central energy production, detoxification, neurotransmitter breakdown, or intestinal microbial activity. Marked accumulation of specific organic acids detected in urine often signals a metabolic inhibition or block. The metabolic block may be due to a nutrient deficiency, an inherited enzyme deficit, toxic build-up or drug effect. Several of the analytes are markers of intestinal bacterial or yeast overgrowth.

Advantages of the Organix Comprehensive Profile

  • Extensive Analyte List - The Organix Comprehensive contains one of the most extensive analyte lists in the industry. Including markers such as Quinolinate, D-Arabinitol, and 8-Hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine, the Organix offers great value.
  • Innovative Method - The LC/MS-MS method, which is also used to screen newborns for metabolic disorders, requires very little sample preparation and processing. This technology provides more stability, accuracy, and sensitivity in measuring organic acids at low levels for optimum test results.
  • Single Urine Specimen - A single overnight urine collection is easy for patients, leading to increased patient compliance.

Test name(s)

0091 - Organix Comprehensive Profile

Method

LC/MS-MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Organix Dysbiosis Profile - Urine

The Russian scientist Elie Metchnikoff (1845 - 1916) popularized the idea of "Dys-symbiosis" or "Dysbiosis," describing an imbalance in the microecology of the digestive tract. When the microbial balance of the gut is disturbed, opportunistic, or "bad", bacteria can overgrow and mitigate the effects of the "good", predominant bacteria needed for a healthy gut.

Advantages of the Organix Dysbiosis Profile

  • Reports D-arabinitol, a specific marker for Candida sp., which can cause disease in patients, especially if they are immunocompromised.
  • Reports D-lactate, an indicator of L. acidophilus overgrowth and carbohydrate malabsorption.
  • Utilizes the LC/MS-MS method, providing more stability, accuracy, and sensitivity in measuring organic acids at low levels for optimum test results.
  • A single urine specimen is easy for patients, leading to increased patient compliance.
  • Discrimination between microbial classes allows for more focused and targeted therapies.
  • An economical follow-up test for practitioners to monitor targeted therapy.

Why use the Organix Dysbiosis Profile?

The Organix Dysbiosis Profile is a urine organic acid test measuring the by-products of microbial metabolism, and is particularly useful in detecting the presence of pathogenic microbial overgrowth. As a stand-alone test, the Organix Dysbiosis Profile is a great follow-up option to the Organix Comprehensive Profile, allowing the clinician to assess microbial overgrowth and guide and monitor targeted therapy in patients.

Is Urine Organic Acid Testing Useful for Assessing Dysbiosis?

Urine contains unique products of microbial metabolism which are used to measure small bowel yeast and bacterial overgrowth. With the exception of hippurate, the compounds measured in the Organix Dysbiosis Profile, such as D-arabinitol, are not normally produced by human cells. Unfriendly intestinal microorganisms, however, can manufacture them in relatively high quantities. These compounds are absorbed into the blood from the intestines and eventually appear in a urine organic acid test.

Stool testing also gives insight into the gut microbial population of the large bowel.

The Organix Dysbiosis Profile and the GI Effects Stool Profile can be utilized together to gain an overall snapshot of a patient's gut health.

Symptoms of dysbiosis can be as diverse as:

  • Behavioral disorders
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Depression
  • Headache
  • Immune dysfunction
  • Insomnia
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Joint pain
  • Learning disorders
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Food allergies
  • Skin disorders, acne

Test name(s)

0097 - Organix Dysbiosis Profile

Method

LC/MS-MS Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Oxidative Stress 2.0, Blood

This test utilises a blood sample in order to evaluate the body's oxidative stress status and antioxidant reserve. This test can help practitioners identify underlying causes and perpetuating factors for many clinical disorders.

Oxidative Stress 2.0, Urine

This test utilises a urine sample in order to evaluate the body's oxidative stress status and antoxidant reserve. It can help practitioners identify underlying causes and perpetuating factors for many clinical disorders.

Parasitology

This test evaluates stool for the presence of parasites, using microscopic examination only. This is an ideal test for a follow-up after addressing an initial discovery of parasites.

PreD Guide™

This profile measures stages of pre-diabetes and progression toward type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. PreD Guide™ focuses on the importance of early assessment and correction of risk factors.

Reverse T3

Under certain conditions, the conversion of T4 to T3 can be impaired, resulting in high levels of reverse t3 (rT3). Although chemically similar to T3, reverse T3 is completely inactive and lowers the amount of active thyroid hormone available to the cells. A selenium deficiency, excess physical, mental and environmental stresses can all inhibit the deiodinating enzyme which is responsible for this conversion. This can be termed 'sick euthyroid' or 'low T3 syndrome'. Reverse T3 can be included in the Total Thyroid Screen on request.

Rhythm Plus™ - Comprehensive Female Hormone Profile

As well as assessing the monthly fluctuations in Oestradiol and Progesterone through the female hormone panel, this panel also assesses Melatonin and the Adrenal Hormones, Cortisol and DHEA.

Rhythm™ - Female Hormone Panel

This 12-sample saliva test measures progesterone, oestrogen and testosterone levels over the monthly cycle to identify any hormonal imbalances. Common symptoms of this can include premenstrual tension, fluid retention, excessive menstrual bleeding, menstrual irregularity, low libido, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, acne, and excess body hair

Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA)

SIgA is an important indicator of digestive immune function. Chronic intestinal infections (due to bacterial, yeast or parasites), food sensitivities, aging, antibiotics, medication and stress all decrease sIgA levels. Low levels can lead to recurrent infections and food intolerances. Very low levels of this important antibody class have also been observed in autistic spectrum disorders.

TGA - Tissue Transglutaminase

Tissue transglutaminase has been proven to be highly specific in detecting untreated Coeliac Disease and is the target antibody in this disease

TRIAD Bloodspot Profile

Now available in a non-invasive option for your patients

The TRIAD Bloodspot Profile gives your patients an easy-to-use option to collect their specimens at home - no blood draw required! With simple finger sticks and an overnight urine collection, the TRIAD Bloodspot Profile gives you the same quantitative information as the TRIAD Profile.

Using the synergetic power of the OrganixAmino Acids, andAllergix IgG4 Food Antibodies testing, faster and more effective results are produced. Because targeted, individualized interventions based on the TRIAD Bloodspot Profile can be more cost-effective than simple protocol-based treatment plans, the TRIAD Bloodspot Profile represents real value.

Profiles included:

  • Organix Comprehensive Profile: Measures organic acid levels to reveal the nutritional and metabolic basis of patient symptoms, including anxiety, mood changes, and immune responses.
  • Bloodspot Amino Acids 20 Profile: Determines essential amino acid imbalances that affect both physical and mental function.
  • Allergix Bloodspot IgG4 Food Antibodies Profile:Measures the level of IgG4 reactions for 30 common foods.

The TRIAD Bloodspot Profile includes fully customized intervention guidelines (custom vitamin/mineral formulas, custom amino acid blends, and an online food reaction guide) so you can focus your interventions on the specific needs of each patient.

The TRIAD Bloodspot Profile allows simultaneous assessment of:

  • Vitamin and mineral sufficiency
  • Insufficiencies of carnitine and NAC
  • Oxidative stress and antioxidant sufficiency
  • Detoxification adequacy
  • Functional status of B-vitamins
  • Neurotransmitter metabolism
  • Mitochondrial energy production
  • Methylation sufficiency status
  • Lipoic acid and CoQ10 sufficiency
  • Specific markers of bacterial and yeast dysbiosis
  • Essential amino acids sufficiency
  • Food sensitivities
  • Intestinal hyperpermeability

Why Bloodspot?

  • Easy to implement in any practice
  • Does not require venipuncture
  • Easy enough that patients can complete at home
  • Customized amino acid formulations based on your patient's specific test results

Test name(s)

0400 - TRIAD™ Profile

Method: LC/MS-MS, HPLC, Spectrophotometry, EIA

TRIAD Profile - Blood & Urine

The TRIAD Profile helps you target each patient's specific needs by integrating three powerful profiles (Organix, Amino Acids, and Allergix IgG Food Antibodies) into a single innovative tool offering customized intervention options.

Patients with similar symptoms can have remarkably different metabolic and nutritional needs. And patients with comparable laboratory results often exhibit widely divergent symptoms.

Three Integrated Profiles = One Fully Customized Solution

The logic behind the TRIAD Profile is simple. Clinicians, like you, told us that interventions based on Organix, Amino Acid, or Allergix IgG Food Antibodies testing produced excellent results. The TRIAD Profile uses the synergetic power of these three components to produce better results, faster. Because targeted, customized interventions based on the TRIAD Profile can be more cost effective than simple protocol-based treatment plans, the TRIAD Profile represents real value.

Only the TRIAD Profile includes fully customized intervention guidelines (custom vitamin/mineral formulas, custom amino acid blends, and a customized food rotation diet) so you can focus your interventions on the specific needs of each patient.

The TRIAD Profile allows simultaneous assessment of:

  • Vitamin and mineral sufficiency
  • Insufficiencies of carnitine and NAC
  • Oxidative stress and antioxidant sufficiency
  • Detoxification adequacy
  • Functional status of B-vitamins
  • Neurotransmitter metabolism
  • Mitochondrial energy production
  • Methylation sufficiency status
  • Lipoic acid and CoQ10 sufficiency
  • Specific markers of bacterial and yeast dysbiosis
  • Essential amino acids sufficiency
  • Food sensitivities
  • Intestinal hyperpermeability

Test name(s)

0400 - TRIAD™ Profile

Method: LC/MS-MS, HPLC, Spectrophotometry, EIA

Testosterone

This test measures salivary testosterone levels, the principal androgen in men, and can allow for the detection of hormonal imbalances related to symptoms of male andropause, as well as those related to imbalanced testosterone commonly found in women. This test can be used to assess baseline levels and monitor testosterone replacement therapy.

Thyroid Plus

This test is a more cost effective way of combining the Total Thyroid Screen with Reverse T3 to give the full picture of thyroid health status. Thyroid imbalances have far reaching effects and elicit fatigue, depression, coldness, constipation, poor skin, headaches, PMS, dysmenorrhea, fluid retention, weight gain, anxiety/panic attacks, decreased memory and concentration, muscle and joint pain, and a low sex drive.

Total Thyroid Screen

This test analyses serum levels of TSH, total T4, free T4, free T3, anti-TG antibodies, and anti-TPO antibodies to assess central and peripheral thyroid function, as well as thyroid auto-immunity.

Toxic Element Clearance Profile

This test measures urinary excretion of toxic metals, including 'classic' toxics such as lead, mercury, and arsenic. This is an ideal test for patients suspected of toxic element exposure.

Toxic Metals - Whole Blood

Whole Blood generally reflects Increased or recent exposure to toxic elements. The Genova DiagnosticsToxic Metals Profileshows levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

Test name(s)

0026 - Toxic Metals

Description

Increased exposure to toxic elements is generally reflected by levels in whole blood. This test shows levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury.

Method

  • ICP/MS
Unmetabolized Folic Acid (UMFA) - Serum

Found in leafy green vegetables, natural folates are the group name for related members of this B-vitamin family. A synthetic form, folic acid (FA), is used in fortified foods and most dietary supplements. In fact, looking to combat birth defects such as cleft palates and spina bifida, the U.S. government began mandating the use of synthetic FA to fortify the national food supply in 1988. However, new research indicates that the increased intake of synthetic FA, combined with the slow and variable effects produced by the enzyme Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR), can lead to an accumulation of Unmetabolized Folic Acid (UMFA) in the blood.

Why should you measure UMFA?

  • Reduce Risks for Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): UMFA is associated with enhanced development and progression of certain cancers; Low levels of 5-MTHF have been linked to elevated homocysteine (increased risk for CVD)
  • Improve Vital Functions: UMFA is very important in making red blood cells, proper nerve function, bone health, and cell production (especially in skin and the digestive tract)
  • Detect Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Vitamin B12 deficiency can be masked by high levels of UMFA, and in turn, cognitive function can become compromised and Anemia* can also develop
  • Boost Immune Function: Excess folic acid or UMFA can weaken immune function and impair natural killer cells

What forms of folic acid do we measure?

  • Pteroylmonoglutamic acid (UMFA) With the increased consumption of supplements and grains fortified with folic acid (based on the US Recommended Dietary Allowance), folic acid excess and UMFA are an emerging concern.
  • 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHF) In addition to UMFA, levels of the most predominant active folate in serum, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHF), is measured. Low levels are indicative of folate deficiency and are associated with a separate set of health conditions.
  • Low levels are indicative of folate deficiency and are associated with a separate set of health conditions, particularly neural tube defects, such as cleft lip/palate and spina bifida.

Test name(s)

0030 — Unmetabolized Folic Acid - Serum

Method

LC/MS/MS

Urine Iodine

Iodine is an essential trace element, vital for healthy thyroid function. Adequate levels are required to enable the production of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones, whilst also being required in other Areas of health. Deficiencies can lead to impaired heat and energy production, mental function and slow metabolism. Urine iodine is one of the best measures of iodine status. This test is not performed as a loading test, but can be used to establish existing levels or to monitor iodine supplementation.

Urine Thyroid Hormone T3/T4

The elevation of thyroid hormone levels in urine, assesses tissue exposure to thyroid hormones over a 24-hour period. The urine thyroid test therefore serves as a valuable tool for detecting those patients that are suffering from thyroid dysfunction, particularly low grade hypothyroidism who might otherwise go undetected through standard blood tests. It is important to use this test as an adjunct to other indicators of thyroid function, such as body temperature, symptomology and standard blood thyroid tests.

Urine Thyroid Hormones (T3/T4) and Iodine

A cost effective method of combining the urine thyroid hormone test (T3 &T4 only) with urinary iodine. Iodine is vital for optimal thyroid health and deficienies are often implicated in hypothyroidism.

Vaginosis Profile

Evaluates vaginal bacteria, yeast, cytolysis, leukocytes, RBCs and Trichomonas.

Vitamin B12 & Folate

The analysis of these important vitamins is part of an assessment of certain types of anaemia and nutrient status during pregnancy.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D has a hormone like effect, which has a high prevalence of deficiency and insufficiency, even in normal populations. There is growing evidence that vitamin D is involved in an increasing number of chronic diseases including bone disease, cancer, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease, chronic fatigue and mental health problems.

Vitamin K Assay - Serum

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that functions as a cofactor in the production of blood coagulation factors (in the liver), osteocalcin (in bone), and matrix Gla-proteins (in cartilage and vessel walls), each resulting in the deposition of ionic calcium.

Monitoring vitamin K can help reduce risk of osteoporotic bone fractures, cardiovascular disease, and possibly some cancers by identifying individuals who may have a vitamin K deficiency. Since current dietary recommendations of vitamin K are based on saturation of the coagulation system, those recommendations may be insufficient to maintain vascular and bone health, since individual functions are independent of each other.

Vitamin K status is especially important in individuals:

  • With cardiovascular disease or those with a family history of arteriosclerosis
  • At high risk of bone loss, such as pre- and post- menopausal women or those with a family history of osteoporosis
  • On certain drug therapies, particularly blood thinners, such as warfarin or aspirin
  • On restricted diets
  • On long-term antibiotic therapies

The Metametrix Vitamin K Assay

Direct vs. functional measurement of vitamin K

The Metametrix Vitamin K Assay measures a functional marker, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC). Very little vitamin K is stored in the body therefore direct measurement is not ideal.

Osteocalcin (OC) is almost exclusively a product of mature, active osteoblasts and is a vitamin K-dependent, Ca+2 binding protein. A vitamin K deficiency is indicated by an ucOC increase in circulating blood and urine. Therefore, high ucOC indicates low vitamin K status.

Symptoms & conditions related to vitamin K deficiency:

  • Bruising
  • Epistaxis
  • Fractures
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Menorrhagia
  • Hematuria
  • Nosebleeds
  • Anemia
  • Osteopenia/Osteoporosis
  • Calcification of soft tissue, especially heart valves
  • Digestive problems, especially malabsorption
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Cancer
  • Malabsorption syndromes

Increasing vitamin K

There are two natural forms of vitamin K, which differ based on their phytyl group-phylloquinone (vitamin K1) synthesized from plants, and menaquinone (vitamin K2) from bacteria in the large intestines.

  • Vitamin K1 is highest in green leafy vegetables such as kale, broccoli, collard greens, and lettuce.
  • Vitamin K2 is found in fermented foods such as cheese, meats, and dairy products.
  • Use salicylates such as aspirin with care. Salicylates can block vitamin K.
  • Vitamin K supplements

Test name(s)

0031 — Vitamin K Assay

Method

EIA

Women's Health Profile - Blood & Urine

Understanding your health is necessary for optimal living. As with most other disease states, preventative care and the ability to predict what we are at risk for at the earliest stages is ideal in treating each individual.

The Women's Health Profile can help assess those risk factors associated with genetics, biochemical imbalances, and environmental influences for women of all ages.

Test name(s)

4146 - Women's Health Profile

Method: EIA, Spectrophotometry, LC/MS/MS, HPLC, GC/MS, Automated Chemistry, Chemiluminescence, Colorimetric